ARSENIC HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH PROGRAM

PROJECTS

Berkeley

University of California

Table S2. Odds Ratios of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Urine Arsenic Concentrations:

 

 

Odds Ratios of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Urine Arsenic Concentrations Including Results Adjusted for Urine Creatinine

 

 

No.

 

 

Unadjusted

 

 

Adjusteda

 

 

Adjustedb

 

 

 

Cases

Control

 

OR

95% CI

 

OR

95% CI

 

OR

95% CI

Total Arsenic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20th percentile (3.5 g/L)

21

141

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

≥80th percentile (≥18.3 g/L)

17

142

 

0.8

0.41-1.59

 

0.88

0.39-1.97

 

0.9

0.35-2.34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lower tertile (5.2 g/L)

36

232

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

Middle tertile (5.3-11.8 g/L)

32

230

 

0.9

0.54-1.49

 

0.87

0.48-1.55

 

0.87

0.47-1.61

 

Upper tertile (>11.8 g/L)

30

235

 

0.82

0.49-1.38

 

0.76

0.42-1.39

 

0.76

0.37-1.56

Arsenobetaine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Below detectionc (0.3 g/L)

42

217

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

≥80th percentile (≥6.2 g/L)

15

142

 

0.55

0.29-1.02

 

0.59

0.29-1.19

 

0.59

0.29-1.22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lower tertile (0.3 g/L)

42

217

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

Middle (0.4-2.2 g/L)

29

246

 

0.61

0.37-1.01

 

0.68

0.38-1.21

 

0.68

0.38-1.22

 

Upper (>2.2 g/L)

27

234

 

0.6

0.36-1.00

 

0.62

0.34-1.13

 

0.62

0.34-1.15

Estimated Inorganic Arsenic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20th percentile (2.7 g/L)

20

142

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

≥80th percentile (≥11.9 g/L)

22

139

 

1.12

0.59-2.15

 

1.15

0.53-2.50

 

1.4

0.53-3.69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lower tertile (4.1 g/L)

36

227

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

Middle tertile (4.2-8.5 g/L)

29

238

 

0.77

0.46-1.30

 

0.63

0.34-1.15

 

0.67

0.35-1.29

 

Upper tertile (>8.5 g/L)

33

232

 

0.9

0.54-1.49

 

0.98

0.53-1.80

 

1.13

0.52-2.48

Dimethylarsonic acid (DMA)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20th percentile (1.9 g/L)d

15

111

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

≥80th percentile (≥7.0 g/L)

21

146

 

1.06

0.53-2.16

 

1.05

0.45-2.44

 

1.13

0.42-3.07

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lower tertile (2.7 g/L)

35

227

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

1

ref

 

Middle tertile (2.8-5.0 g/L)

37

252

 

0.95

0.58-1.56

 

1.02

0.57-1.82

 

1.05

0.56-1.95

 

Upper tertile (>5.0 g/L)

26

218

 

0.77

0.45-1.33

 

0.82

0.43-1.57

 

0.86

0.40-1.84

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; No., number; OR, odds ratios; ref, reference group

aAdjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, education, body mass index, serum cotinine, and current use of hypertension medications.

bAdjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, education, body mass index, serum cotinine, current use of hypertension medications and urine creatinine (in ug/L).

cThe detection limit was used rather than the 20th percentile since > 20% of people had arsenobetaine concentrations below detection.

dThis group contains fewer than 159 subjects (the 20th percentile) since a large number of subjects had DMA levels of 2 g/L and were assigned to the 20-80th percentile group.

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